Differences between natural and artificial selection: Evolution can occur through a variety of methods, including mutation, migration, and genetic drift, but natural selection is the best known and most widely accepted. Artificial selection, on the other hand, involves artificial selection or selective breeding influenced by human activity. Natural selection selects the fittest organism, one that can cope and adapt to a variety of conditions such as changes in weather, temperature, shelter, food, genetic drift, etc.
Artificial selection involves selecting organisms with desirable qualities and then genetically modifying them using the latest advances in biological technology. Accordingly, natural selection is what nature chooses best, and artificial selection is what humans have chosen based on their needs. Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution, known as “Darwinism” or the theory of natural selection. In this article, we will analyze the differences between natural and artificial selection, which will be helpful in understanding them better.
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What is natural selection?
Natural selection is the process by which the fittest individuals in the universe survive in a variety of settings. Natural selection was originally proposed in 1859 by Charles Darwin. Natural selection was introduced by him. This idea claims that evolution is caused by a natural mechanism that selects the best-fit traits without human intervention.
Natural selection is the process of survival, reproduction, and population growth of a population favoring the fittest individual. Individuals unable to cope with harsh climate and other variations, on the other hand, are unable to grow, reproduce or finish. Natural selection occurs in all animals in the universe, whether aquatic, terrestrial or arboreal, for example.
Natural selection is a long-term process that takes hundreds of years.
Each descending ancestor has better suited conditions than the previous one. The first giraffes, for example, had short necks. They couldn’t collect their food from the trees. They gradually developed long necks over many years to increase their chances of survival. There are now long-necked giraffes in the world that can easily eat long trees. As a result, new species may appear.
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Components of natural selection;
1. Organisms in a population must differ from each other.
2. These variants must be hereditary, ie they must be able to be transmitted to future generations.
3. A significant population growth rate is required.
4. Different reproduction and survival rates should be observed among organisms in the population.
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Types of natural selection
1. Directional Selection: This is a kind of natural selection that selects the extreme state of any population.
2. Stabilizing Selection: It is a kind of natural selection that selects the intermediate condition of the population.
3. Disruptive Selection: This is a type of natural selection in which severe conditions of the population are chosen.
What is artificial selection?
Artificial selection is a form of artificial technology to select organisms with specific characteristics. Selective breeding is another term for it. The term “artificial selectionrefers to a people-driven process. It’s a quick process that could take a few years.
Artificial selection results in the emergence of a new species or variant. Artificial selection is mainly employed for economic purposes. As a result, it only affects a small number of creatures, mostly domestic ones. An organism that has been artificially selected has a low probability of survival because the new breed may be threatened due to trait differences.
Artificial selection can best be stated with an example: if we need a cow with unique characteristics, such as increased milk and meat production, we will cross the different cows with the necessary characteristics. This crossing will give rise to a new variety with distinct characteristics. This new breed is unlikely to survive, but if it does, it will produce superior results.
Due to the increasing demand for high quality crops, fruits and pets, such as cows, sheep, dogs and buffaloes, artificial selection is now frequently used. Every day, new variations emerge for the benefit of mankind.
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Comparison between natural and artificial selection
1. Meaning: Natural selection is the process by which an organism adapts to its changing environment by making selective changes to its genotype or genetic makeup.
Artificial selection, often known as selective breeding, is the process by which humans identify desirable qualities in animals and plants and use those traits to produce desirable phenotypic traits.
2. Process: Natural selection is a process that occurs in the natural world. Artificial selection, on the other hand, is a process that has been created artificially or by man.
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3. Perform in: Natural selection occurs in natural populations and under natural circumstances. Humans create domesticated populations, where artificial selection takes place.
4. Rate: Through natural selection, a fit organism’s chances of survival increase. If this is not done correctly, an organism’s chances of survival can be compromised.
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5. Controlled by: Natural selection is a long-term process that takes many generations to complete. Artificial selection is a faster procedure that takes days or weeks and gives more visible results.
6. Performed on: Natural selection is not as well controlled as artificial selection because it is governed by natural processes. Because humans are responsible for artificial selection, it can be better managed.
7. Features: Natural selection is based on an animal’s adaptive traits. Artificial selection is based on desired characteristics selected by humans. Natural selection transmits only good or favorable qualities from generation to generation.
Only selected qualities can be transmitted through consecutive generations due to artificial selection.
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8. Diversity: Natural selection affects the entire population of a species. Artificial selection only impacts those chosen.
9. Evolution: Natural selection is responsible for a large amount of biological variation. Artificial selection only results in desirable changes and traits, as well as a reduction in genetic variation.
10. Scale: Speciation and evolution over several generations are facilitated by natural selection. Evolution is not facilitated by artificial selection.
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Key Differences Between Natural and Artificial Selection
1. Natural selection is the natural selection process that favors the fittest forever in the face of adversity; artificial selection is the artificial process of selection that promotes desired characteristics in new creatures.
2. Natural selection is a long and laborious process; however, character selection is done artificially, so a new race’s chances of survival are reduced, whether it’s a plant, animal, or anything else.
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3. Natural selection is under the authority of nature; artificial selection is solely under the control and coordination of humans.
4. Natural selection occurs in all types of animals, while artificial selection occurs in specific selective organisms that humans choose.
5. In natural selection, organisms are chosen based on their adaptability and ability to cope with a wide range of environmental situations. Artificial selection is carried out according to the necessary character.
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6. Natural selection transforms an entire population of a species, while artificial selection produces a new variety of that species.
7. Natural selection occurs in all types of natural populations and is a process of natural selection; on the other hand, artificial selection occurs in domestic populations and is a man-made selection process.
8. Darwin’s finches, a collection of 14 kinds of small birds from the same bird species of the Galapagos Islands, are an example of natural selection. Artificial selection is commonly used in pets or domestic animals, as well as in animals used for commercial purposes.
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We can conclude that change is a natural part of everyone’s life and eventually it gives rise to new species, some of which are completely evolved versions of their ancestor species. Accordingly, we could say that artificial selection is planned, while natural selection is unplanned.
Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka ACMC, is a law student and certified mediator/conciliator in Nigeria. He is also a developer with knowledge in HTML, CSS, JS, PHP and React Native. Samuel is determined to change the legal profession by creating web and mobile applications that will make legal research much easier.